This is a P-47C-5-RE from the same block as Barlow's 41-6538 YJ-B, the colours would have been the same . It was also coded "B" with the 4FG previously. The 353FG flew Cs and early Ds at Goxhill in mid-1943 when working up, the 3 operational groups having priority.
The fuselage cockades at this time had a nominal 2" yellow outline ( as on RAF insignia) and an extra and enlarged star and bar applied under the wings (but not above). These and the white bands-cowl were intended to avoid confusion with FW190s. Note these models had no wing pylons.
Barlow's later D-6-RE 42-74716 in May 1944 would have had the same campuflage but with bars added to the insignia; group colours on cowls were begun from March, yellow-black diamonds for the 353FG. The 2 underwing insignia were normally retained but white tail bands were often removed , certainly by P-51s.
You may care to check my post in the 353FG forum on Bergerson and Barlow and group P-47s.